Process of melting silver by mixing other ores with it to gather desirable purity is called melting process.
To join one piece with another is called soldering process.
Cut Work (Jaliwork)
Cutwork or jaliwork is a needlework technique in which portions of metal are cut away and the resulting “hole” is reinforced. It is done through a hacksaw. This hacksaw is used to cut the desired design made on silver products.
Engraving is the technique of incising a design on to a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. There are two types of engraving. Hand engraving which is done through gravers and other is machine engraving which is done through gun bow machine. Engraving machine uses a diamond stylus to cut cells. Engraving technique highlights the minute details of the design engrave.
It is a process of smoothening and shaping the products with the help of fillers. It is done in order to remove the unwanted rough parts of the products and give them a clean and crisp look. There are different fillers for different materials, also in different shapes and sizes.
Electroplating is a process of covering of one type of metal with a thin layer of another type of metal. There is anode and cathode which is dipped in tank and through electricityi.e. current, electroplating is done. At anode, there is silver and at cathode, there is silver raw product. Due to usability of anode, it gets cut and finished and new cathode are added.
Annealing / Cleaning
Annealing is a heat treatment wherein a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. It is a process that produces conditions by heating it above the critical temperature, maintaining a suitable temperature and then cooling. Annealing is used to induce ductility, soften material, relieve internal stresses, refine the structure by making it homogeneous and improve cold working properties. After annealing, the product is cleaned in dilute Sulfuric acid and water.
Packaging and Dispatch
Packaging is done in order to protect products for distribution, storage, sale and use. It prepares goods for transport and sales. The main packaging material is paper carton, thermocol sheets, wooden boxes and polybags. The products are packed by workers after quality check. Before dispatching, the products are packed in cardboard boxes( as per size), thermocol is used to prevent the product from being damaged, plastic bags, bubble paper, paper dust and cello tape.
It follows a property of malleability in which material’s ability to deform under compressive stress to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling. It is a forming process in which silver stock is passed through a pair of rolls. The temperature of the metal is below the room temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. It is a machine in which a piece of silver is passed through the rolls and comes out in the form of a sheet according to the required gauge.
Process in which plates and trays of different sizes and shapes are made by a power press machine. A machine press, commonly shortened to press, is a machine tool that changes the shape of a work piece. It is a set of plates with a relief or depth-based design in them. The metal is placed between the plates and the plates are pressed up against each other, deforming the metal in the desired design. This machine is required when bulk order has to be produced. It is also known as stamping press machine which is used to shape or cut metal by deforming it with a die.
It is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering to create a design in relief. It is also known as chasing. The process of embossing/Nakshi takes a lot of time due to the repetition of number of time- consuming stages. The first step is the preparation of the metal by annealing; cleaning to remove the pitch between annealing and work; setting up; and careful work with punches. This process is typically repeated many times during the creation of a work. There are hundreds of tools which can be used. These are hardened steel punches. These are of various sizes and types like designer punches and regular punches.
It is a finish in which a chemical is applied onto a silver product. Oxidized sterling is intentionally darkened silver made by tarnishing it in a controlled way to increase detail and the appearance of depth in a design.
Types of polish
1. Plain high polish : Also known as mirror polish. It is a kind of a simple silver finish that gives look to a product. It is achieved through buffing the product many times.
2. Dipping gold polish : It is a polish in which the product is dipped in the gold plating solution and taken out.
3. Dull polish : It is known as matte finish. It is a finish which gives a dull or matte look to a product as compared to plain finish. It is done with the help of frosting machine.
4. Ganga jamuna polish: It is a combination of dual finish in which, in a single product, there are two finishes, gold and silver. NC clear lacquer is used.
5. Oxidized polish (antique look): It is a finish in which a chemical is applied onto a silver product. Oxidized sterling is intentionally darkened silver made by tarnishing it in a controlled way to increase detail and the appearance of depth in a design.
It is used to polish metal products. Buffing is done after grinding process. The process is again repeated after electroplating process. When it is done earlier, it was for the purpose to clean & smoothen the surface of the product. Buffing is also done to remove the black marks of the oil which comes on the surface of the products during spinning process. Also, to finish the surface of the product and make it smooth. The objective of buffing is to make a rough surface into a smooth one and of course, each work piece will be in a different condition, so will need different procedures. Buffing is used to give much higher, lustrous, reflective finish that cannot be obtained by polishing.
Spinning Machine process
Sheet into 3D form like jug, glass, bowl etc. Metal spinning, also known as spin forming or spinning, by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric hollow parts that are typically circular in cross- section. The basic process starts with a flat metal disc(blank) which rotates on a lathe. This rotating blank is pressed against a tool(mandrel, chuck) which duplicates the interior of the part. This pushing action over the tool results in a formed part. The basic metal spun shapes are the hemisphere, cone, cylindrical shell and others.
The hand metal spinning tool is called a spoon. These tools can be made of hardened steel for using with aluminium or solid brass for spinning stainless steel or mild steel. This reduces friction and heating of the tool, extending tool’s life and improving surface finish. Rotating tools may also be coated within film of ceramic to prolong tool’s life.
Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. In metal working, metal is heated until it becomes liquid and is then poured into a mold. The mold is a hollow cavity that includes the desired shape but the mold also includes runners and risers that enable the metal to fill the mold. The mold and the metal are then cooled until the metal solidifies. The solidified part (the casting) is then recovered from the mold. Subsequent operations remove excess material caused by the casting process (such as the runners and risers).
Hand Scratching is a process in which the layer of the whole product is been scratched through the tools. The process by which the surface of large products or flat objects like trays, plates, etc. are finished with the help of peeling tools. It is done for the purpose to remove the spots from the products and also preparing the product for buffing process and to make it clean. It is done by both, manually and machines. Small and circular are done through machine, like bowl, diyas, sweet dish, glass etc. and large and flat products like, plates, trays, etc. are done through hand tools
Hand shaping is a process in which the products are shaped through hands by beating with hammer and other tools. Those products which are not prepared on machine but are shaped through hands. These type of products are jug, glass, bowls, etc. These are shaped through different types of hammer. Beaten or hammered products are completely made by hand hammering process. In hammering process of these kind of products, the metal sheet must hammer and beating on the time of red hot which remains soft and flexible for further process. If not beaten, the metal gets colder and loses its softness and flexibility which in turn is tampered and gets hardened while handlingand thus, breaks metal or product if hammered. Note: for hand work, silver used contains cadmium because cadmium when mixed with silver, softens the metal and can be handled easily for hand-made products.